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Game Networking 101

Vol. 2, Issue 10
January 31, 2000 

 

Now we'll take a moment and talk about client prediction. And what a clever but nasty beast this is. In the cases where both the client misses a packet from the server, and the time between getting normal gaming packets, (think about it - the server may only be running at 10fps, but that doesn't mean you want the client side representation to), the client needs to be doing something to make it look like it IS still getting data. So we predict the world and events in it. Since we know what's going on with the client's player - after all, we are right there at the input point right? - we can predict what he is going to do. If he fires a weapon, we can show it on screen, since that's what we know he's going to do. We can also predict - to a lesser degree - what the other players are doing, at least to complete out any animations they may be in, if they are dropping still have gravity performed on them and so on. Now of course this only works for a time measured in seconds, but usually that's enough for the packet system to come back on line, and start re-receiving stuff from the server, at which time the client can correct itself for any events that it predicted wrong. At the best, it's totally on target, and you will never have known that you were missing data. At middle, the client is a bit out, so it starts correcting via a smoothing operation, that way no one 'snaps' really obviously to a new location. And at worst, you are dead via an attack you didn't even see, since it occurred while you were missing packets. However, there is no way around this situation so it's something that has to be lived with, and it's better than jerky motion and snapping updates.

However, what do you do if you miss a baseline packet? IE one that has a new object in it that wasn't there before? You've missed all the information that came down initially, but you will be getting updates from that point on. Well, to be honest - that’s the trick isn't it? I've given away most of the tricks of the trade already, but some must remain. I'll give you a clue though; it is possible to fix a situation like this :)

In every type of game there are some packet types that WILL require a guaranteed delivery. So be prepared to create some kind of structure to cope with this, because UDP doesn't. But be sure you don’t use it too much or you will end up back with the same problems that TCP/IP has.

Online Cheating. There are a few ways to try to deal with this, but be warned, what's man-made is man-hackable. This is not so much a big deal at big frag fests since all the matches there are moderated, but it can have an impact on those that qualify for these fests. And of course, it just plain sucks to be playing on a server where someone is unbeatable because they are cheating. Cheating can occur in many ways, modifying the client to never display walls in the game, adding lights or white skins to other players, displaying a local map (if you want to get really ambitious), modifying your aim so it's always dead on other players, or simply firing a weapon at an opponent with deadly aim the moment they are in sight. All of these are hacks to the client end of the game, and when done properly, are pretty un-observable back at the server. There is some stuff you can do, checking the accuracy of each player and dumping those that go over a certain scale. You may lose some really good players that way, but it's unlikely that anyone can get over an 80% hit rate all the time. All the checks of the client in the world can really be gotten around since the result of the check has to be returned to the server at some point, and if it's intercepted there and replaced with what the server expects, the server is fooled. Using the result to decrypt the data that comes from the server is possible, but again, it's done on the client side and with enough patience and a good dis-assembler it can be gotten around. Client integrity is the key here, and keeping it the aim. The Quake 1 & 3 solution, that of a virtual machine, where instead of the client loading the game up the client 'builds' or 'compiles' the game it's going to run via instructions from the server, is a good start, since re-writing someone else's compiler is beyond all but the very best of hackers. God knows, writing it in the first place is a nightmare I wouldn't want to contemplate. But it is within the bounds of possibility. All the games developer can do is make it as difficult as he possibly can for the budding hacker and be content with that.

Last thoughts for Developers.

Peter Lincroft who was involved with X Wing vs. TIE fighter had an article in Game Developer Magazine and did a talk at GDC last year about his experiences with net gaming, and I'd like to reiterate some of his idea's here for completeness sake.

When testing a game, make sure you find a really horrible ISP to do some real Internet testing. Most games get built and tested to start with on the internal LAN at the developer's offices. This isn't really a fair test, since LAN's rarely drop packets and have great PING's. Find a bad ISP and do some REAL testing. This really works wonders for you later.

Emulate Internet conditions. Stick some code into your code base that emulates packet dropping. Have it settable so you know at what point your game is going to break down - is it 10% drop out or 30%? These are things you should know so you can automatically drop someone from a game if this occurs. Something to bear in mind here is that the Internet doesn't typically just drop one packet. Usually they occur in batches, so don't just dump one at a time, do them several at a time.

Remember your server is going to be sending out far more data than each client has to worry about. If client messages are around the 2k mark a second, and there are 10 clients, then the server is banging out 10x2k packets, which is 20k. Be sure that the communications infrastructure you are using is capable of supporting this.

Well there you have it, some ramblings and thoughts on Networking 101 for Games. I've probably made some mistakes, but the gist of it should be sound. Have fun out there, and be amazed it works at all. :)

Big thanks must go to James Monroe for adding any inaccuracies this article may have. Blame him and send him mail for any mistakes instead of me.


- Jake Simpson is a code monkey for Raven Software. He's badass.


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Credits: Illustration © 2000 Costas (Darkpath Images) and Andy, This article is © 2000 Jake Simpson. All other content is © 2000 loonyboi productions. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited. So don't do it, or we'll give you really, really, bad lag.